Abstract: Mitochondrion plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and is the necessary organelle for eukaryote. Mitochondrion has its own genome and is more independent than other organelles like Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, ribosome etc. 11 mitochondrial markers are specified below.
Keywords: Mitochondrial Marker Antibody, Mitochondrial Protein, Organelle
1. Overview of Mitochondria
Organelle (also called substructure) is the cytoplasmic microorgan with specific morphology and function. The plastid and vacuole can be recognized under optical microscope. Other organelles can be observed by electron microscope.
Organelles in the cell usually contain mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, centrosome, chloroplast, Golgi apparatus and ribosome etc. They form the basic cellular structure maintaining the normal performance.
Except Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and several microsporidias, most eukaryotic cells more or less have mitochondria which are different in size, amount and appearance.
There are only 13 proteins encoded by mitochondrial genome. Over 1000 mitochondrial proteins are found. Other mitochondrial functional proteins are encoded by nuclear genome and synthesized as precursors by the ribosome. Synthesized precursor proteins are exactly transferred into the mitochondrion by TOM, and also keep complete mitochondrial structure as well as the function.
2. TOM20 Mitochondrial Marker(Mitochondrial Import Receptor)
TOM20 (KIAA0016) belongs to Tom family. Tom20 is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. The leader sequence promotes the recognition of precursor proteins and help transfer of proteins from outer mitochondrial membrane to mitochondria. During the continuous process, Tom20 recognizes the leader sequence first and connects the sequence with Tom40 protein complex for efficiently importing proteins.
【FNab08858】anti- TOM20 antibody
3. Cytochrome C Oxidase (COX)
COX is the protein complex on mitochondrial inner membrane. It's involved in proton transport and catalyzes oxygen into water during ATP synthesis. Most COX subunits can serve as good mitochondrial markers.
4. Apoptosis-inducing Factor(AIF, PDCD8)
AIF is the 67 kDa intermembrane space protein which is widely expressed. In the mitochondrion, AIF is the oxidoreductase with anti-apoptotic activity. During apoptosis signaling pathway, AIF is released into cytoplasm and transferred into nucleus to cause nuclear apoptosis.
【FNab00235】anti- AIF antibody
100 kDa kinase is involved in the first step for catalyzing glycolysis on outer mitochondrial membrane. Hexokinase phosphorylates hexose to form phosphohexose (e.g. Glucose becomes glucose-6-phosphate).
6. Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase 1(CPS1)
CPS1(molecular weight: 163 kDa) is the mitochondrial isoenzyme involved in urea cycle and also removes excessive ammonia. CPS1 is the marker for liver and kidney mitochondria.
7. Voltage-dependent Anion-selective Channel 1(VDAC1)
VDAC1 is the outer mitochondrial membrane receptor for hexokinase and BCL2L1.
8. ATP Synthase (ATP5A, ATPB)
Hydrion transfers mitochondrial ATPase F1 complex α chain and β chain. ATP synthase produces ATP from ADP, with the help of proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain.
9. HSP60 Mitochondrial Marker
Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is the mitochondrial chaperone encoded by nuclear genome and also plays an important role in mitochondrial protein transport and folding. A research shows inactivated HSP60 has an effect on the key function of mitochondria by reducing cellular respiration and ATP level.
Mitofilin is the inner mitochondrial membrane protein and interacts with various mitochondrial proteins. They are involved in maintaining the morphology of mitochondrial cristae and mitochondrial protein transport. The recent research shows abnormal expression of Mitofilin in various diseases results in the disorder of structural and functional integrity of mitochondria, and promotes incidence of the disease.
【FNab05199】anti- Mitofilin antibody
11. Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A(mtTFA)
mtTFA is the key factor for mtDNA transcription and replication. Regulate mitochondrial function by regulating mtTFA. Promote the replication, transcription and translation of factors related to oxidative phosphorylation.
New target for treatment of tumor and metabolic diseases. PHB is not only a new chaperonin but also involved in cell cycle by maintaining mitochondrial structure and function. It plays an important role in anti-apoptosis, anti-aging and proliferation.
Mitochondrial Caseinolytic Protease P: A Possible Novel Prognostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Cancer, PMID: 34207660.
Mitochondrial biology and the identification of biomarkers of Huntington's disease, PMID: 32746707.