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Dysregulation of the key steps in metabolism and energy production pathways is associated with several diverse diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and diseases associated with errors in the storage of lipids and carbohydrates.
Signal transduction provides information transfer. It is a fundamental cellular process for communicating events at the cell surface and interactions with the extracellular environment into changes in gene expression that occur in the nucleus. The field of signal transduction is extremely dynamic, involving interactions between proteins, micro- and macromolecules, and DNA.
The central points of immunology are identifying and distinguishing the many different immune cells that are essential for diagnosis and therapy. This includes research on both the innate and adaptive immune response and processes such as pathogen recognition, immune cell activation and recruitment, cytokine secretion, inflammation, and antibody production.
The human brain is a specific unit composed of billions of cells. Its functions such as synaptic plasticity, memory, and learning are related to neurodevelopment of the organ.